Popular science knowledge of laser cutting machine
Popular science knowledge of laser cutting machine
Common cutting machines on the market are divided into laser cutting machines and plasma cutting machines.
Although they are all cutting metals, there are still many differences between laser cutting machines and plasma cutting machines.Today we mainly introduce some knowledge content of laser cutting machine.
The laser cutting machine is to focus the laser light emitted from the laser into a high-power density laser beam through the optical path system. The laser beam irradiates the surface of the workpiece to make the workpiece reach the melting point or boiling point, and the high-pressure gas coaxial with the beam blows away the molten or vaporized metal.
With the movement of the relative position of the beam and the workpiece, the material will finally form a slit to achieve the purpose of cutting.
Compared with traditional oxyacetylene, plasma and other cutting processes, laser cutting speed is fast, the slit is narrow, the heat-affected zone is small, the edge of the slit is perpendicular, and the cutting edge is smooth. At the same time, there are many types of materials that can be laser cut, including carbon steel. , Stainless steel, alloy steel, wood, plastic, rubber, cloth, quartz, ceramics, glass, composite materials, etc. With the rapid development of the market economy and the rapid development of science and technology, laser cutting technology has been widely used in automobiles, machinery, electricity, hardware, and electrical appliances. In recent years, laser cutting technology is developing at an unprecedented speed, with an annual growth rate of 15% to 20%. Since 1985, my country has grown at a rate of nearly 25% per year.
The laser of the laser cutting machine is divided into CO2 gas laser and fiber laser
Since laser technology was introduced to cut thin metal sheets, CO2 lasers have dominated the market. The CO2 laser light source requires a lot of energy to excite nitrogen molecules to collide with CO2 molecules (laser gas), prompting them to emit photons, and finally form a laser beam that can cut through the metal. The molecular activity in the cavity releases light as well as heat, which requires a cooling system to cool the laser gas. This means that more energy is consumed during the cooling process, further reducing energy efficiency.The machine using the fiber laser occupies a small area, and the laser light source and cooling system are also smaller; there is no laser gas pipeline, and no lens adjustment is required. The 2kw or 3kw fiber laser light source only needs 50% of the energy consumption of the 4kw or 6kw CO2 laser light source to achieve the same performance, and is faster, lower energy consumption, and has less impact on the environment.
The fiber laser uses solid-state diodes to pump the molecules in the double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber. The stimulated emission of light passes through the fiber core multiple times, and then the laser is output through the transmission fiber to the focusing head for cutting. Since all intermolecular collisions occur in the fiber, no laser gas is required, so the energy required is greatly reduced-about one-third of the CO2 laser. As the less heat is generated, the volume of the cooler can be reduced accordingly. In short, while achieving the same performance, the overall energy consumption of fiber lasers is 70% lower than that of CO2 lasers.
The application of metal laser cutting machine is very wide, covering many industries, and it is one of the necessary equipment for many companies, including advertising sign production (these are mainly stainless steel LOGO and logo cutting), sheet metal processing (sheet metal cutting) Metal processing basically includes all metal materials. These are generally bending, grinding, etc., and cutting is the most important process), chassis and cabinet production (in this regard, carbon steel or stainless steel is generally useful, but also mainly folding Bending and cutting 2 cutting processes), springs (belonging to the finishing process), subway parts, as well as the production of elevator shells, mechanical equipment shells, and kitchen utensils (mostly stainless steel), which surpass lasers The laser cutting machine setting of the company is also involved in the production of the seven-seven-shen-eight spacecraft, which actually involves various aspects. Widely used in sheet metal processing, advertising sign production, high and low voltage electrical cabinet production, mechanical parts, kitchenware, automobiles, machinery, metal crafts, saw blades, electrical parts, glasses industry, springs, circuit boards, electric kettles, medical micro Electronics, hardware, knife measuring tools and other industries.
The application of laser processing technology in the advertising industry mainly includes two working methods: laser cutting and laser engraving.
When the laser cutting machine is working, it is very dangerous if it fails. Novices must be trained by professionals to operate independently. Based on experience, 13 details of the safe work of the laser cutting machine are summarized:
1. Observe the general safety operation regulations of cutting machines. Start the laser strictly in accordance with the laser start procedure.
2. Operators must be trained to be familiar with the structure and performance of the equipment, and to master the knowledge of the operating system.
3. Wear labor protection equipment according to regulations, and must wear protective glasses that meet the regulations near the laser beam.
4. Do not process a material before it is clear whether it can be irradiated or heated by laser to avoid the potential hazards of smoke and steam.
5. When the equipment is started, the operator shall not leave the post or be taken care of without authorization. If it is necessary to leave, stop the machine or cut off the power switch.
6. Keep the fire extinguisher within easy reach; turn off the laser or shutter when not working; do not place paper, cloth or other flammable materials near the unprotected laser beam.
7. When an abnormality is found during the processing, the machine should be shut down immediately, and the fault should be eliminated or reported to the supervisor.
8. Keep the laser, the bed and the surrounding area clean, orderly, and free of oil pollution, and stack the workpieces, plates, and waste materials in accordance with the regulations.
9. When using gas cylinders, avoid crushing the welding wires to avoid leakage accidents. The use and transportation of gas cylinders should comply with gas cylinder supervision regulations. It is forbidden to explode the gas cylinder in the sun or close to a heat source. When opening the bottle valve, the operator must stand on the side of the bottle mouth.
10. Observe high-voltage safety regulations when repairing. Every 40 hours of operation or weekly maintenance, every 1,000 hours of operation or every six months of maintenance shall be carried out in accordance with regulations and procedures.
11. After turning on the machine, manually start the machine in the X and Y directions at low speed, and check whether there is any abnormality.
12. After inputting the new part program, test run it first and check its operation.
13. When working, pay attention to the operation of the machine tool to avoid accidents caused by the cutting machine going out of the effective stroke range or two collisions.